The distribution box acts as the centre of power distribution, distributing electricity to all connected devices. A distribution box, also known as a distribution board, panel board, breaker panel, or electric panel, ensures that electrical power is distributed throughout the facility. It is a building’s or property’s core electrical supply system. It separates electrical power into subsidiary circuits and provides a protective fuse or circuit breaker for each circuit as part of an electrical system.
All of the contact breakers, earth leakage units, doorbells, and timers are housed in a distribution box. The main feeding cable transports electrical power from the network to the building. The electricity is distributed through the breakers in the secondary circuits once the wire is connected to the distribution board (lights and plugs).
A distribution box’s components
Electrical distribution boards’ basic structure and technical elements differ depending on the country and requirements. A bus bar, fuse connections, switches, bypass equipment, and a residual current detector are all common components of an electrical distribution box (RSD.). On a general level, these elements will result in:
- Electrical installation in the home.
- The main switch or incoming supply circuit breaker.
- Board of control and distribution (consumer unit).
- Protective devices against surges.
- Between the electrode and the point of zero potential, there is an earth resistance.
Working with wires and cables in an electrical system must be done safely, and distribution boards must make sure that:
- Overcurrent via the circuitry should be prevented by the fuse.
- It’s simple to set up.
- Other wiring, fittings, and cables should have ample room.
- Corrosion shouldn’t be an issue.
- To ensure safety, only the highest-quality wire should be utilised.
Their primary responsibilities are to:
- Depending on the objective, divide the power supply into sub-circuits.
- Make sure everyone and everything is protected against short circuits.
- Distribute electricity from the primary power source to several locations.
Different types of distribution boards are available, each serving a different distribution need, and some are also configurable. The many kinds of distribution boxes are listed below.
Distribution Box Types
Breaker Panel (Main Breaker)
The main breaker panel is the most frequent and vital type to have in any home since it:
- The circuits are protected, and the amperage capacity is controlled.
- It prevents the circuits from overheating.
- In the event of a significant short circuit, shuts down the power supply, including the circuit breakers.
Lug Panel (Main)
When there is a major upstream breaker, they are typically utilised as a distribution box. Line wires are attached to these lugs, and when connected to a breaker from the main panel, the main lug panel can be utilised as a sub-panel. During a fire or an emergency, the meter’s independent disconnection can be employed. These will then act as a primary breaker, cutting off the electrical supply even before it reaches the property or structure.
When numerous circuits are required in the same location, subpanels are ideal. For residential houses, subpanels are simple to install, safer, and more efficient. Through a circuit, these are connected to the main panel. They take electricity from the main panel and distribute it around a space or property. Sub Panels are smaller and may deliver electricity to a specific section of a house or property, as well as serve as satellite circuit breaker panels for the area. They do not, however, have disconnection.
Transfer Switch ─
When a power load needs to be switched from one electrical source to another, a transfer switch (also known as a subpanel) is utilised. For instance, regular power to the generator and vice versa. With the aid of the breaker panel, it converts generator power to electrical power. When the weather is inclement and unpredictable, transfer switches can be used as backup power generators. In the event of a power outage, the transfer switch effortlessly transfers generator power to electrical power via the breaker panel. Transfer switches are divided into two categories:
Manual Transfer Switches: These switches are used when the electrical load is manually transferred to backup power.
Automatic Transfer Switches: These are used to acquire temporary electrical power from a generator during a power outage. Homeowners love it since it is smooth and simple to use.
Fuse bank on the panel
Serves as the distribution system’s load centre. It protects an over-current electrical circuit against electrical hazards. A panel fuse bank is suitable for distributing solar panel electricity. The solar panels store the energy, which is then sent straight to the fuse box before being dispersed throughout the house.
Unitized Panel is a type of unitized panel.
This electronic metre shows electrical characteristics, making it unique. Power centres utilise unitized panels to provide and deliver low-voltage power from a medium-voltage line. These can be found in both industrial and commercial settings.
Panel of Industrial Lighting
They cut down on energy usage in industrial settings. It is accomplished by configuring the lights to turn off while the computer is idle.
Box for distributing power
When we talk about distribution boxes, we can’t forget about Power Distribution Boxes, sometimes known as PDUs or distros. A distro is a device that safely distributes energy from a power supply to other circuit devices. It features a single input and several outputs. This implies that instead of connecting directly to the power supply, many devices are linked to the distribution. It improves distribution efficiency and convenience while guaranteeing safety. The major benefit is that it reduces the likelihood of blown fuses or harmful short-circuits.
Power distribution boxes come in a variety of forms, sizes, and constructions, and they may be customised. Input and output voltages are two variables that might be used. Additionally, the number of inputs may be changed, and safety measures like as MCBs and RCBs can be included.
Power distribution boxes are beneficial because they eliminate the requirement for each output device to be connected directly to the power source. As a result, there’s no reason to utilise any more cables than are absolutely essential. This conserves energy, simplifies the circuit, assures efficiency, and reduces power waste. Because there are less actual cables to deal with, the work environment for employees and visitors is safer. When wires become entangled with other objects, they can be a serious tripping danger.